A bottom feeder is an aquatic animal that feeds on or near the bottom of a body of water. Bottom feeder is a term used particularly with aquariums. Biologists often use the terms benthos — particularly for invertebrates such as shellfishcrabscrayfishsea anemonesstarfishsnailsbristleworms and sea cucumbers — and benthivore or benthivorousfor fish and invertebrates that feed on material from the bottom. Biologists also use specific terms that refer to bottom feeding fish, such as demersal fishgroundfishbenthic fish and benthopelagic fish. Examples of bottom feeding fish species groups are flatfish halibutflounderplaicesoleeelscodhaddockbassgroupercarpbream snapper and some species of catfish and shark. Bottom feeders are not necessarily detritivoresalthough there are many that are. Some bottom feeders graze along the bottom, feeding on plant material. Other bottom feeders may feed on other bottom feeders, and thus are carnivores. Many bottom feeders are also capable of burying themselves. A variety of invertebrates are able to bury themselves, such as bristlewormssea cucumbersand snails. Many vertebrate bottom feeders may bury themselves, such as flatfish or stingray. In many bottom feeders, a mechanism to deal with substrate is often necessary. In the case of some organisms such as sea cucumbersthe sand is usually passed through the body. In fish, sand will be pumped out of the mouth through the gill slit. In fish, most bottom feeders exhibit a flat ventral region so as to more easily rest their body on the substrate. The exception may be the flatfish, which are laterally depressed but lie on their sides. Also, many exhibit what is termed an "inferior" mouth, which means that the mouth is pointed downwards; this is beneficial as their food is often going to be below them in the substrate. Those bottom feeders with upward-pointing mouths, such as stargazerstend to seize swimming prey.
Some flatfish such as halibut actually have a "migrating" eye that moves to the upward-facing side of the fish as it ages. Init was reported that deep sea bottom feeders absorb carbon dioxide by eating creatures such as jellyfish and cephalopodsallowing the gas to be contained at the sea floor rather than be recycled back into the atmosphere.
In the aquariumbottom feeders are popular as it is perceived that they will clean the algae that grows in the tank. Generally, they are only useful for consuming the extra fresh food left by overfed or clumsy livestock; the added biomass of additional organisms means that the aquarium will likely be more dirty.
Some specialized bottom feeders are more specifically sold as "algae eaters" to increase the amount of free oxygen and aesthetic appeal of a tank. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Oophagy Paedophagy Placentophagy Breastfeeding Weaning. Animal cannibalism Human cannibalism Self-cannibalism Sexual cannibalism. Fish locomotion Fin and flipper locomotion Amphibious fish Walking fish Flying fish Undulatory locomotion Tradeoffs for locomotion in air and water RoboTuna. Predatory fish billfish mackerel salmon tuna Forage fish anchovy herring sardine sprats Demersal fish cod flatfish pollock. Jawless fish hagfish lampreys Cartilaginous fish chimaeras sharks rays Bony fish spiny-finned fleshy-finned.